Determination of heavy metals in the dates (P. dactylifera L.) of Balochistan (Panjgoor and Turbat)


  • Rozia Achakzai Secondary Education Department, Government of Balochistan, Quetta, Pakistan
  • Naqeebullah Khan Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Basic Sciences, University of Balochistan, Quetta, Pakistan
  • Attiq-Ur-Rehman Kakar Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Basic Sciences, University of Balochistan, Quetta, Pakistan
  • Samiullah Khan Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Basic Sciences, University of Balochistan, Quetta, Pakistan
  • Abdul Hakeem Tareen Secondary Education Department, Government of Balochistan, Quetta, Pakistan



atomic absorption spectrophotometer, Balochistan, date fruits, heavy metals


Background and objective: Dates are a high-nutritional-value food that is suitable for humans since they contain major nutrients such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and dietary fibers. The current study aimed to determine the level of some heavy metals such as Fe, Pb, Co, Mn, Cd, Cu in the dates (P. dactylifera L.) taken from various regions of Balochistan (Panjgoor and Turbat).

Method: The analysis was performed using the atomic absorption spectrophotometer.

Results: The results indicated the presence of all the analyzed heavy metals in the samples. The mean detected concentration order of heavy metals is Fe > Pb > Cu > Mn > Cd > Co. The highest average level of Fe was detected and the least average level of Co was determined in dates.

Conclusions: It is concluded that the levels of all the detected heavy metals in all varieties of dates were found within the admissible limit of WHO/FAO and ATSDR.


Download data is not yet available.


A Celik et al. “Determining the heavy metal pollution in Denizli (Turkey) by using Robinio pseudo-acacia L”. Environ Int 31(1) (2005), pp. 105–112. DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2004.07.004. DOI:

Abdelhak Mansouri et al. “Phenolic profile and antioxidant activity of the Algerian ripe date palm fruit (Phoenix dactylifera)”. Food Chem 89(3) (2005), pp. 411–420. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.02.051. DOI:

Debopam Banerjee. “Market basket survey for chromium, copper, lead and cadmium in some vegetables from different shopping malls in Kolkata, India”. Elec J Env Agricult Food Chem 9 (2010), pp. 1190–1195.

F Shahdadi et al. “Study of phenolic compound and antioxidant activity of date fruit as a function of ripening stages and drying process”. J Food Sci Technol 52(3) (2015), pp. 1814–1819. DOI: 10.1007/s13197-013-1177-6. DOI:

Hashmi D and Siddiqui I and Shaikh G. “Accumulation of heavy metals in tarry deposit on leaves at various locations of Karachi”. J Chem Soc Pak 28(2) (2006), p. 15.

I M Aldjain et al. “Determination of heavy metals in the fruit of date palm growing at different locations of Riyadh”. Saudi J Biol Sci 18(2) (2011), pp. 175–180. DOI: 10.1016/j.sjbs.2010.12.001. DOI:

J A Vinson et al. “Dried fruits: excellent in vitro and in vivo antioxidants”. J Am Coll Nutr 24(1) (2005), pp. 44–50. DOI: 10.1080/07315724.2005.10719442. DOI:

J A Vinson et al. “Phenol antioxidant quantity and quality in foods: fruits”. J Agric Food Chem 49(11) (2001), pp. 5315–5321. DOI: 10.1021/jf0009293. DOI:

K De Mora et al. “A pH-based biosensor for detection of arsenic in drinking water”. Anal Bioanal Chem 400(4) (2011), pp. 1031–1039. DOI: 10.1007/s00216-011-4815-8. DOI:

Lars Järup. “Hazards of heavy metal contamination”. Brit Med Bull 68(1) (2003), pp. 167–182. DOI: 10.1093/bmb/ldg032. DOI:

M A Khan. Baloch Hamza Dates revolutionizing dates’ production in Balochistan. 2022. URL:

M Abualhasan et al. “Evaluation of heavy metals and microbiological contamination of selected herbals from Palestine”. Open Life Sci 14 (2019), pp. 448–453. DOI: 10.1515/biol-2019-0050. DOI:

M. A. Elbagermi, H. G. M. Edwards, and A. I. Alajtal. “Monitoring of heavy metal content in fruits and vegetables collected from production and market sites in the Misurata area of Libya”. ISRN Anal Chem (2012), pp. 827645–827645. DOI: 10.5402/2012/827645. DOI:

Nader Ghahremannejad, Mohammad Alizadeh, and Sajad Pirsa. “Partial substitute of sugar with date concentrate in the peach/apple juice and study physicochemical/color properties of blend fruit juice”. Adv J Food Sci 13 (2017), pp. 236–252. DOI: 10.19026/ajfst.13.5161. DOI:

Omer Munzuroglu, Fikret Karatas, and Hikmet Geckil. “The vitamin and selenium contents of apricot fruit of different varieties cultivated in different geographical regions”. Food Chem 83(2) (2003), pp. 205–212. DOI: 10.1016/S0308-8146(03)00064-5. DOI:

Othman Lugwisha Esther Hellen and Chande Othman. “Levels of selected heavy metals in soil, tomatoes and selected vegetables from Lushoto District-Tanzania”. Int J Envir Monit Anal 2(6) (2014), pp. 313–319. DOI: 10.11648/j.ijema.20140206.13. DOI: Agri Technologies, Precision Farming, Pakistan Agriculture. 2022. URL:

Seulki Jeong, Youn-Tae Kim, and Hye-On Yoon. “Droplet method for the determination of sodium and potassium concentrations in highly saline water samples using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry”. Spectrochim Acta Part B At Spectrosc 153 (2019), pp. 28–33. DOI: 10.1016/j.sab.2019.01.007. DOI:

Tsugutoshi Aoki. “Copper deficiency and the clinical practice”. J Japan Med Assoc 129(5) (2003), pp. 617–620.

Valtcho D. Zheljazkov and Phil R. Warman and. “Comparison of three digestion methods for the recovery of 17 plant essential nutrients and trace elements from six composts”. Compost Sci Util 10(3) (2002), pp. 197–203. DOI: 10.1080/1065657X.2002.10702081. DOI:

Walid M. Khalilia. “Assessment of lead, zinc and cadmium contamination in the fruit of Palestinian date palm cultivars growing at Jericho governorate”. J Biol Agr Healthc 10(2) (2020), pp. 7–14. DOI: 10.7176/JBAH/10-2-02. DOI:




How to Cite

Achakzai, R., Khan, N., Kakar, A.-U.-R., Khan, S., & Tareen, A. H. (2022). Determination of heavy metals in the dates (P. dactylifera L.) of Balochistan (Panjgoor and Turbat). Baghdad Journal of Biochemistry and Applied Biological Sciences, 3(03), 220–228.