Baghdad Journal of Biochemistry and Applied Biological Sciences <p> </p> <p>Baghdad Journal of Biochemistry and Applied Biological Sciences (BJB-ABS) published by College of Medicine, Al- Nahrain University provides quarterly publication of articles in all areas related to Biochemistry, Analytical Biochemistry, Clinical Chemistry, Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Medical Chemistry, Environmental Chemistry, Physical Biochemistry, Molecular Biology. Baghdad Journal of Biochemistry and Applied Biological Sciences welcomes the submission of manuscripts that meet the general criteria of significance and scientific excellence. Papers will be published approximately 7 days after acceptance.</p> <p>The “Baghdad Journal of Biochemistry and Applied Biological Sciences” is using the Open Journal System for online manuscript submission, review, and tracking. Editorial board members of the journal or outside experts review manuscripts; at least two independent reviewers approval followed by the editor is required for the acceptance and publication of any citable manuscript.</p> College of Medicine, Al-Nahrain University en-US Baghdad Journal of Biochemistry and Applied Biological Sciences 2706-9907 <p>The authors retain the copyright of their manuscript by submitting the work to this journal, and all open access articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (<a href="">Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) </a>), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited. </p> Herbal Medicine as an Alternative Method to Treat and Prevent COVID-19 <p><strong>Background:</strong> The current outbreak of the serious respiratory syndrome disease COVID-19 has resulted from a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2).&nbsp; This infectious disease was classified as a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) because it is threatening public health and life worldwide. Recently, restrictions in many countries are applied to detect the infected individuals and isolate them, in addition to attempts to find appropriate treatments that can help decrease the severe symptoms of the disease. Regardless of the conduced efforts, the number of reported cases of coronavirus infections is still growing up. Yet, no medication or vaccine was approved to prevent and/or treat people from this coronavirus, though many researches from academic groups and medication companies are still ongoing.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> This review aims to summarize the possible herbs and plants from the natural herbal medicine along with western medicine, which could assist treat or protect people from COVID-19.</p> <p>Understanding the infection rules, clarifying the pathogenic mechanisms, and detecting the appropriate medication treatment could improve the development of the essential treatment and prevention methods.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Since the finally-approved drug for this virus is still absent and a sharp increase in infection numbers is taking place, it became urgent to present possible alternatives, such as the Chinese herbal medicines, in a trail to cure SARS-CoV-2.</p> Mohammed Kadhom Ahmed Nadhmi Al-Doori Dina S. Ahmed Emad Yousif Copyright (c) 2021 Mohammed Kadhom, Ahmed Nadhmi Al-Doori , Dina S. Ahmed, Emad Yousif 2021-02-20 2021-02-20 2 01 1 20 10.47419/bjbabs.v2i01.25 The antioxidant, antimicrobial, and clinical effects with elemental contents of Pomegranate (Punica Granatum) Peel Extraction: A Review <p><strong>Background:</strong> Pomegranate belongs to the family of Punicaceae. It has deciduous shrubs. Pomegranate is generally cultivated in Afghanistan, China, Iran, India, Pakistan, USA.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> This study aimed to review the pomegranate peels for exploring their importance in the field of health.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> This review showed that Pomegranate is used as food and plays a vital role in the medicinal field. Because pomegranate fruit and its peel extraction contain various compounds like antioxidants, phenolic Acid, Flavonoids, Tannins etc., that have been found very effective in the health field. Due to the presence of antioxidants and other active compounds, pomegranates' peel is imperative for the betterment of human health. Besides, various medicines such as antidiarrheal medicine may be prepared from the peel extract of Pomegranate. Peel extract can act against various microbes such as Klebsiella pneumonia and Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, E. coli, S. aureus etc. The pomegranate strip and root remove have been accounted for in creatures to diminish blood glucose activity.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> It concludes that further research is needed to explore the hidden characteristics of pomegranate peel.</p> Abdul Qahir Attiq-Ur-Rehman Kakar Naqeebullah Khan Samiullah Abdul Hakeem Rehana Kamal Fazal-Ur-Rehman Copyright (c) 2021 Abdul Qahir , Attiq-Ur-Rehman Kakar, Naqeebullah Khan, Samiullah, Abdul Hakeem, Rehana Kamal, Fazal-Ur-Rehman 2021-03-08 2021-03-08 2 01 21 28 10.47419/bjbabs.v2i01.33 Serum and urinary soluble alpha klotho levels in patients with Chronic kidney disease <p><strong>Abstract </strong></p> <p><strong>Background</strong>: Chronic kidney disease is an epidemic global health problem that leads to death. To prevent any disease progression and treatment, the diagnosis must be made in the early stage by studying renal damage. Klotho is a protein found in many organs of the human body, but it is mainly abundant in the kidney. This study aimed to evaluate klotho's clinical significance as an additional biomarker for diagnosing chronic kidney disease in its early stages. </p> <p><strong>Method</strong>s: One hundred subjects were included in this study to measure their serum and urinary klotho. Forty patients with chronic kidney disease (pre-dialysis) and sixty normal subjects were enrolled in this study. Serum and urinary klotho were determined using the ELISA technique in addition to other renal function tests.</p> <p><strong>Results : </strong>Serum and urinary alpha klotho were decreased in CKD patients when it compared with control subjects. A positive correlation was found between serum creatinine and urinary alpha klotho in the patients' group.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Serum and Urinary alpha klotho levels were decreased significantly in patients with chronic kidney disease compared with healthy controls.</p> Khalid Jamal Al-Jewari Rayah S. Baban Jawad Kadhim Manuti Copyright (c) 2021 Khalid Jamal Al-Jewari, Rayah S. Baban , Jawad Kadhim Manuti 2021-04-04 2021-04-04 2 01 29 37 10.47419/bjbabs.v2i01.35 The association between Gastric Bacterial Infection and Low Level of Vitamin D among Patients with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> The present research aimed to find an association between infection by <em> Helicobacter pylori </em>and vitamin D deficiency in type 2 diabetes mellitus among Iraqi individuals attending Al-Yarmouk Teaching Hospital.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> According to fasting blood glucose, the samples were divided into a non-diabetic group with ten diabetic individuals and a diabetic group with thirty individuals.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong></p> <p>The anti-H. Pylori (IgG) levels were 86.77± 58.62 NTU/µL in diabetic patients compared with 10.12 ± 7.40 NTU/µL in non- diabetic group. Vitamin D levels were decreased significantly in infected patients compared to non-infected subjects.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong></p> <p>The H pylori-infected patients have recorded the lowest level of vitamin D than non-infected individuals.</p> Sarah T. Al-Mofarji Haider .K. Hussien Nadira Salman Mohamed Sundus Fadhil Hantoosh Mohammed Khudier Abass Asmaa Ali Copyright (c) 2021 Sarah T. Al-Mofarji, Haider .K. Hussien, Nadira Salman Mohamed, Sundus Fadhil Hantoosh, Mohammed Khudier Abass, Asmaa Ali 2021-04-13 2021-04-13 2 01 38 46 10.47419/bjbabs.v2i01.32 Evaluation of Lipid metabolizing enzymes: Paraxonase1(PON1) and Lecithin Cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activities in children with nephrotic syndrome <p><strong>Background</strong>: The most common glomerular disorder in children is nephrotic syndrome, associated with high morbidity despite notable advances in its treatment. Many of the nephrotic syndrome complications, including the increased risk of atherosclerosis and thromboembolism, can be linked to dysregulated lipid metabolism and dyslipidemia. Paraoxonase enzyme is responsible for the most of antioxidant properties of HDL, thus preventing the formation of atherogenic ox-LDL molecules, and Lecithin Cholesterol acyltransferase is intimately involved in HDL maturation and is a key component of the reverse cholesterol transport pathway, which removes excess cholesterol molecules from the peripheral tissues to the liver for excretion.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The present study aimed to investigate the serum activities of paraoxonase-1(PON-1) and lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) in children with nephrotic syndrome in an active phase (as newly diagnosed or old cases with acute relapse)</p> <p> also, to study any correlation exists between paraoxonase-1 activity and lipid profile.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: This study consists of Group 1 with 40 cases of nephrotic syndrome in the age group of (2-14 years) and Group 2 with 40 age and sex-matched healthy controls. Lipid profile and paraoxonase activity, Lecithin Cholesterol acyltransferase activities were measured in both groups' serum samples.</p> <p><strong> Results</strong>: Statistical analysis by student's t-test showed that the mean levels of Total Cholesterol, Triglycerides, LDL were significantly increased in Group 1 when compared to Group 2 (p &lt;0.001). PON1 and Lecithin Cholesterol acyltransferase levels were significantly lowered in Group 1 compared to Group 2, and there is no significant difference among nephrotic groups.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Both Paraoxonase-1 enzyme and Lecithin Cholesterol acyltransferase are considered good promising predictors for nephrotic syndrome and other parameters such as LDL, HDL, and T.G. The significantly decreased Paraoxonase-1 enzyme and Lecithin Cholesterol acyltransferase activities result in increased oxidation of LDL, thus accelerating atherosclerosis.</p> Raghad Jamal Ali Rayah Sulaiman Baban Shatha Hussain Ali Copyright (c) 2021 Raghad Jamal Ali , Rayah Sulaiman Baban , Shatha Hussain Ali 2021-05-05 2021-05-05 2 01 47 58 10.47419/bjbabs.v2i01.38