Baghdad Journal of Biochemistry and Applied Biological Sciences https://bjbabs.org/index.php/bjbabs <p><em>Baghdad Journal of Biochemistry &amp; Applied Biological Sciences (BJ-BABS)</em> is an international, English language, peer-reviewed scholarly publication in the area of biomedical sciences and published by the College of Medicine, Al-Nahrain University and edited by an international group of eminent researchers. BJ-BABS publishes original papers, reviews and short communications on, but not limited to:</p> <ul> <li>Biochemistry (medical, clinical, analytical)</li> <li>Biotechnology (medical)</li> <li>Complementary and alternative medicine</li> <li>Endocrinology, diabetes and metabolism</li> <li>Microbiology</li> <li>Molecular and cell biology</li> <li>Pharmaceutical chemistry</li> </ul> <p> </p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Publication advantages in <em>Baghdad Journal of Biochemistry &amp; Applied Biological Sciences </em>are:</span></p> <ul> <li>Free of charge publication for all types of articles</li> <li>Fast and constructive peer review</li> <li>Easy and quick online submission of manuscripts</li> <li>Author friendly review</li> <li>Rapid publication by means of running issue concept, which gives authors the benefit of <em>"No Waiting Time"</em> for the officially accepted manuscripts</li> <li>Free publication of color images</li> <li>Worldwide visibility of papers (Open Access Journal)</li> </ul> College of Medicine, Al-Nahrain University en-US Baghdad Journal of Biochemistry and Applied Biological Sciences 2706-9915 <p>The authors retain the copyright of their manuscript by submitting the work to this journal, and all open access articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (<a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/">Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) </a>), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited. </p> The association between PON1 gene polymorphisms (Q192R and L55M) and nephrotic syndrome in Iraqi children https://bjbabs.org/index.php/bjbabs/article/view/55 <p><strong>Background:</strong> The role of paraoxonase 1 enzyme (PON1) and its single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in children with nephrotic syndrome (NS) has been reported previously in different ethnic and racial groups with divergent results. The human <em>PON1</em> gene contains two coding region polymorphisms leading to two different PON1 isoforms.</p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> The aim of the present study was to find out the association between the <em>PON1</em> (Q192R and L55M) polymorphisms and their relation with serum PON1 activity as well as lipid profile tests (total cholesterol, TC; triglycerides, TG; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-c; and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-c) in children with NS.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This study included a total of 80 participants (40 with NS in the age group of 2-14 years and 40 age and sex-matched healthy controls). The PON1 enzyme activity and lipid profile tests were measured in serum samples of all included participants. The <em>PON1</em> genotype was determined by PCR-restriction enzyme fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) for both <em>PON1</em> alleles (192 and 55) SNPs.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Our findings showed that the mean levels of lipid profile tests (TC, TG, LDL-c) were significantly increased in patients when compared with healthy controls (<em>p</em>&lt;0.05), while the HDL-c concentration was significantly decreased in patients than that of controls. Also, the patients had significantly lower concentrations of PON1 when compared with the controls regardless of the genotype Q192R and L55M polymorphisms. Moreover, the homozygous RR genotype for <em>PON1</em> SNP 192 and MM homozygous genotype for <em>PON1</em> SNP 55 were significantly frequent in patients when compared with the controls.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Our results support that the presence of the homozygous RR genotype for <em>PON1</em> SNP 192 and MM homozygous genotype for <em>PON1</em> SNP 55 were significantly higher in patients compared with the controls.</p> Raghad Ali Rayah Baban Shatha Ali Copyright (c) 2021 Raghad J. Ali, Rayah S. Baban, Shatha H. Ali https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-07-22 2021-07-22 2 03 118 130 10.47419/bjbabs.v2i03.55 Safety assessment and biochemical evaluation of the effect of biogenic silver nanoparticles (using bark extract of C. zeylanicum) on Rattus norvegicus rats https://bjbabs.org/index.php/bjbabs/article/view/67 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used in various biomedical applications. However, limited reports are currently available about the safety of biofabricated AgNPs using <em>Cinnamomum zeylanicum</em> bark extracts.</p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> The current study is aimed to assess the potential toxicity of biosynthesized AgNPs (using <em>C. zeylanicum</em>) by subacute oral administration in experimental rats.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> AgNPs were biofabricated using methanol extract of <em>C. zeylanicum</em> bark and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Twenty-four Rattus norvegicus female rats were divided into 4 groups (6 animals per group) as follows: Group-I was the control, while groups II, III, and IV were given 0.85, 1.76 and 3.53 mg/kg doses of AgNPs, respectively for 14 consecutive days. After 14 days of oral administration of AgNPs, serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were measured using an ELISA technique. Serum concentrations of urea, creatinine, aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) were also determined as well as histopathologic features of the liver and the kidney.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> AgNPs did not induce any changes in mean body weight, biochemical parameters (AST, ALT, urea and creatinine), oxidative stress biomarkers (MDA, SOD and CAT) and histopathologic features (of the liver and kidneys) of the treated groups when compared to control group.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Our findings suggest that the oral administration of biogenic AgNPs (biofabricated using methanol extract of <em>C. zeylanicum</em>) to rats at a specific dose is relatively safe and does not show any signs of toxicity.</p> Shukrya Alwan Muna Al-Saeed Hussein Abid Copyright (c) 2021 Shukrya H. Alwan, Muna H. Al-Saeed, Hussein A. Abid https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-07-27 2021-07-27 2 03 138 150 10.47419/bjbabs.v2i03.67 Serum vitamin D3 levels in pregnant women with preeclampsia at third trimester of pregnancy https://bjbabs.org/index.php/bjbabs/article/view/42 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-specific condition, characterized by high blood pressure and proteinuria after 20 weeks of gestation. One of the hypotheses concerning the etiology of PE is vitamin D3 deficiency during pregnancy. Vitamin D3 is especially important during pregnancy as low maternal vitamin D3 stores may contribute to problems like low birth weight as well as an increased risk of maternal comorbidities.</p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> To evaluate serum vitamin D3 levels and how they can be affected by the severity of PE at the third trimester of pregnancy.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This case-control study included a total of 71 pregnant women at the third trimester of pregnancy (41 with PE and 30 without PE as controls). Vitamin D3 serum level was measured by enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The study’s findings showed no significant difference in serum vitamin D3 level (<em>p</em>&gt;0.05) between controls (14.41±1.41ng/ml) and PE patients (14.32±1.00). As well, subgroup analysis revealed non-considerable changes between mild PE cases (15.92±1.73 ng/ml) and severe ones (13.07±1.09 ng/ml).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>PE and its severity may have no significant effect on serum vitamin D3 levels of pregnant women at the third trimester of pregnancy.</p> Anas Sadek Rayah Baban May Al-Habib Enas Khazaali Copyright (c) 2021 Anas H. Sadek, Rayah S. Baban, May F. Al-Habib, Enas A. Khazaali https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-07-27 2021-07-27 2 03 131 137 10.47419/bjbabs.v2i03.42