The total and free vitamin D in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Baghdad city

Free and total vitamin D


  • Zainab J. Subber Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad, Iraq
  • Ghassan A. Al-Shamma Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad, Iraq
  • Hashim M. Hashim Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad, Iraq



Bikle method, Bioavailable vitamin D, Free vitamin D, Total vitamin D, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, Vermeulen method


Background: The free-form of vitamin D has been used by many researchers as an index of vitamin D status in health and disease. Several methods are there to estimate free, total, and even bioavailable vitamin D.

Objective: The present work was carried out to measure free vitamin D using a special formula suggested by Bikle and Schwartz in 2019, which includes the vitamin D binding protein (VDBP). The results will be used to evaluate the vitamin D status in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and its relation to the disease progression.

Methods: Sixty-four patients with T2DM and 73 healthy subjects, all from Baghdad city, were enrolled in the current study from March to October 2020. For each participant, fasting blood glucose, hemoglobin (HbA1c), insulin resistance HOMA-IR, and body mass index (BMI) were measured in addition to the total vitamin D and VDBP. Moreover, free vitamin D was calculated by the formula of Bikle & Schwartz.

Results: There were highly significant correlations between total vitamin D and absolute values of free vitamin D or its percentage. The difference in total vitamin D was significant between patients and healthy controls with no significant change in VDBP, free and bio-available vitamin D, while free vitamin D% was higher in the patient’s group. Correlations between vitamin D and each of BMI, fasting glucose, HbA1c, and HOMA-IR were not significant; however, there was a negative correlation with BMI and fasting glucose in the healthy control subjects only. The Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis of vitamin D in the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus was poor.

Conclusion: Total vitamin D can represent vitamin D status, but it cannot be used as a factor for diagnosing T2DM. However, it could be of importance to change the glycemic status.


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How to Cite

Subber, Z., Al-Shamma, G., & Hashim, H. (2021). The total and free vitamin D in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Baghdad city: Free and total vitamin D. Baghdad Journal of Biochemistry and Applied Biological Sciences, 2(02), 79–93.