Assessment of vitamin D levels in children who admitted to pediatric outpatient clinics by age, gender and seasons in Şırnak province, Turkey


  • Veysel Tahiroğlu Department of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Şırnak University, Şırnak, Turkey



25-hydroxyvitamin D, hospitalization, pediatrics, seasonal variations, Turkey, vitamin D deficiency


Background and objective: This study purposes to designate the profile of 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] by evaluating the vitamin D levels of patients attending the pediatric outpatient clinics at the State Hospital in Şırnak, the second city in Turkey in terms of fertility.

Methods: In the study, 4753 patients hospitalized at Şırnak State Hospital were enrolled, and their vitamin D levels were retrospectively examined. Throughout the research, vitamin D concentrations were assessed based on the patients’ gender, age, and seasonal variations. Serum vitamin D levels were categorized as severe deficiency at <12 ng/ml, mild-moderate deficiency at 12–20 ng/ml, and normal at 20–100 ng/ml.

Results: The study analyzed the data of 2107 males and 2646 females. For boys and girls, the median serum vitamin D levels were 18.23 ng/ml and 22.42 ng/ml respectively. There was a statistically significant difference in vitamin D levels between different age groups in both genders (p<0.01). Vitamin D levels were at their lowest in winter and highest in summer for both genders, and statistically significant variations were observed across the seasons (p<0.01). The median vitamin D level was found to be 25.59 ng/ml in patients aged 0–5 years (n=2,272), 18.16 ng/ml in patients aged 6–12 years (n=1,580), and 13.40 ng/ml in patients aged 13–17 years (n=901).

Conclusions: In this study, patients hospitalized at the Şırnak state hospital had severe vitamin D shortages and insufficiency. Vitamin D low levels are believed to be attributed to vitamin D synthesis’s lack due to inadequate wintertime sunshine, a lack of outside activities for kids in the area, or vitamin D-deficient foods. As a result of these findings, there is an increased need for supportive therapy.


Download data is not yet available.


A El-Ansary, J J Cannell, G Bjørklund, et al. “In the search for reliable biomarkers for the early diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder: the role of vitamin D”. Metab Brain Dis 33 (2018), pp. 917–931. DOI: 10.1007/s11011-018-0199-1.

Ay¸se Bü¸sra Yakarı¸s, Can Öner, Hüseyin Çetin, et al. “Frequency of vitamin D deficiency in children admitted to pediatrics outpatient clinics: A hospital-based study”. J Turk Fam Physician 13(1) (2022), pp. 12–20. DOI: FamPhysician.

C Koçyig˘it, G Çatlı, G ˙Ince, et al. “Can stoss therapy be used in children with vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency without rickets?” J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol 9 (2017), pp. 150–155. DOI: 10.4274/jcrpe.3842.

C L Wagner, F R Greer, et al. “Prevention of rickets and vitamin D deficiency in infants, children, and adolescents”. Pediatrics 122(5) (2008), pp. 1142–1152. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2008-1862.

Demet Gedikbaþý Toprak and Þükrü Hatun. “D vitamini yetersizligi ve D vitamini destegi konusunda pratisyen hekimlerin tutumlarý”. STED 13(1) (2004), pp. 16–18.

E Türe, S Müderrisog˘lu, R Acı, et al. “Evaluation of vitamin D levels in adolescents and children according to age, sex and seasonal charesteristics”. Ankara Med J 20(2) (2020), pp. 380–386.

Eda Türe, Seçil Müderrisog˘glu, Recai Aci, et al. “Evaluation of vitamin D levels in adolescents and children according to age, sex and seasonal characteristics”. Ankara Med J 2 (2020), pp. 380–386. DOI: 10.5505/amj.2020.70893.

Erkan Dog˘gan and Nergiz Sevinç. “Vitamin D levels of children in Western Black Sea region of Turkey”. Pamukkale Med J 14 (2020), pp. 1–10. DOI: 10.31362/patd.718933.

G T Kumar, R Chugh, and M Eggersdorfer. “Poor Vitamin D Status in Healthy Population in India: a Review of Current Evidence”. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 85 (2015), pp. 1–7.

I Topal, C Mertog˘lu, Y K Arslan, et al. “Evaluation of vitamin D levels of children according to age, gender and seasons at Erzincan field”. Firat Med J 23(4) (2018), pp. 168–172.

K Nas and R Çevik. “Osteoporosis Risk Factors”. In: Diagnosis and Treatment of Osteoporosis. Ed. by T Göksoy. 2000, pp. 69–94.

K Williams, D Thomson, I Seto, et al. “Standard 6: age groups for pediatric trials”. Pediatrics 129(3) (2012), pp. 153–160. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2012-0055I.

M F Holick and T C Chen. “Vitamin D deficiency: a world wide problem with health consequences”. Am J Clin Nutr 87(4) (2008), 1080S–1086S. DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/87.4.1080S.

M F Holick. “The vitamin D deficiency pandemic: Approaches for diagnosis, treatment and prevention”. Rev Endocr Metab Disord 18(2) (2017), pp. 153–65. DOI: 10.1007/s11154-017-9424-1.

M J Santos, V Fernandes, and F M Garcia. “Vitamin D insufficiency in a hospital population: A photograph from the laboratory perspective”. Acta Med Port 28(6) (2015), pp. 726–734.

Melek Bilgin, Adem Keskin, Recai Aci, et al. “Darkness hormone or daylight hormone in women with systemic lupus erythematosus?” Clin Rheumatol 42(1) (2023), pp. 93–99. DOI: 10.1007/s10067-022-06379-6.

N Moradi, R Fadaei, R Ahmadi, et al. “Role of serum MMP-9 levels and vitamin D receptor polymorphisms in the susceptibility to coronary artery disease: An association study in Iranian population”. Gene 628 (2017), pp. 295–300. DOI: 10.1016/j.gene.2017.07.060.

Halicioglu, S Aksit, F Koc, et al. “Vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women and their neonates in spring time in western Turkey”. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 26 (2012), pp. 53–60. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3016.2011.01238.x.

P Autier, M Boniol, C Pizot, et al. “Vitamin D status and ill health: a systematic review”. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2(1) (2014), pp. 70165–70172. DOI: 10.1016/S2213-8587(13)70165-7.

S Christodoulou, T Goula, A Ververidis, et al. “Vitamin D and bone disease”. Biomed Res Int 2013 (2013), pp. 396541–396541. DOI: 10.1155/2013/396541.

S Datta, M Alfaham, D P Davies, et al. “Vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women from a non-European ethnic minority population–an interventional study”. BJOG 109(8) (2002), pp. 905–908. DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2002.01171.x.

S G Atalay, R Atalay, and B M Alkan. “Vitamin D deficiency in Adults with Musculo Skeletal Pain”. TurkJ. Osteoporos 21 (2015), pp. 101–104.

S¸ Hatun, A Bereket, A S Çalıkog˘lu, et al. “Vitamin D deficiency and nutritional rickets today”. Cocuk Sagligi ve Hastaliklari Derg 46(3) (2003), pp. 224–241.

Selda Telo, Dilara Kaman, and Gürkan Akgol. “Alteration of vitamin D levels according to age, gender and seasons in Elazıg˘”. Firat Med J 22(1) (2017), pp. 29–33.

V Kulda. “Metabolizmus vitaminu D [Vitamin D metabolism]”. Vnitr Lek 58(5) (2012), pp. 400–404.

Veysel Tahiroglu and Naci Ömer Alayunt. “Change of vitamin D levels according to age, gender and seasons in S¸ırnak province”. Turk J Osteoporos 29(1) (2023), pp. 17–21. DOI: 10.4274/tod.galenos.2022.48303.

Z Atay and A Bereket. “Vitamin D: current recommendations”. Turkiye Klinikleri J Pediatr Sci 8(2) (2012), pp. 9–12.





How to Cite

Tahiroğlu, V. (2023). Assessment of vitamin D levels in children who admitted to pediatric outpatient clinics by age, gender and seasons in Şırnak province, Turkey. Baghdad Journal of Biochemistry and Applied Biological Sciences, 4(02).