Plagiarism, defined as appropriating another’s ideas, words, or other creative expression as one’s own, constitutes a clear violation of scientific ethics and may involve copyright infringement subject to legal action.
- Verbatim or near-verbatim copying of portions of another author’s work without proper attribution through referencing and/or quotation marks.
- Paraphrasing substantial segments from another paper without clearly indicating the source.
- Using equations, figures, or tables from another's work without proper citation and/or permission from the original author or copyright holder.
Please note all submissions are thoroughly screened for plagiarism using iThenticate. Manuscripts exhibiting evidence of plagiarism will be automatically rejected. The acceptable similarity index is ≤20%, with no individual source exceeding 5% similarity. In cases where plagiarism is detected in a published article, the journal will initiate retraction according to its retraction policy.